In India, poultry farming of nati-chicken or rural poultry farming has been in practice for decades.
Generally, in rural areas backyard poultry, local or domestic fowls are reared.
Today India stands as the third-largest egg producer and fifth-largest chicken meat producer in the world.
Poultry farming is a profitable business if you plan and execute in a proper way. Compared to other industry, returns in the poultry farm business is very promising.
Choose your Poultry Sector
In India, most poultry farmers raise birds like chicken or domestic fowl, duck, and pigeon, etc.
And in rear cases raise goose, quail, peacock, pigeon, and turkey. All these come under poultry farming.
In this article, we will be discussing only Chicken-poultry forming.
In chicken- poultry farms, we can see 3 types of farming namely – Broiler farming, Layer farming, and Desi Breed farming.
We have discussed all these types in the next sections of this article.
You need to choose the type wisely by looking at the demand in your region.
Each type has a different housing system, investment, and feeding system.
Broilers are primarily reared for chicken meat. In Broiler farming both males and females are raised for a short time, usually four to seven months, and then they are sold for slaughter.
Broilers gain a bodyweight of around 2.2- 2.4 kg within 5 to 6 weeks because of their fast growth.
Deep litter system of housing is more suitable for broiler farming and more number of flocks can be taken in the same shed.
Broilers are fed vitamin-rich food with proteins and adequate fat.
In comparison with layer farming, Initial investment is low and the return of investment is fast.
Layers are primarily reared to produce eggs.
The advantage over Broiler farming is that when layers are done laying (stop giving eggs, usually after 72 weeks) can also be sold as meat.
They have a longer lifespan than Broilers. Since layers are the chickens raised to produce eggs, only females are kept.
They start laying eggs at 20-22 weeks and attain a bodyweight of 1.5–1.8 kg at that time.
The caged housing system is preferred for layers and are fed food rich in calcium, proteins, vitamins, and minerals to increase egg production.
Layer farming requires more investment compared to broiler farming.
Desi Breed Farming
Desi breeds can be raised with considerably low cost and they have a high resistance to diseases.
The feather colors of the desi breeds are multiple colored and mostly browny eggers.
Desi breeds have a stronger immune system hence the strength of survivability is high.
The egg production rate is higher than normal nati/country chicken.
Their eggs have a higher nutrition value and sold for higher prices in the market.
Some of the most reared Indian desi breeds are Gramapriya, Vanaraj, Kalinga Brown, Nirbheek, and Kuroiler FFG.
Most of the desi breed farms use Kuroiler breeds because of their high egg production rate.
They can produce 140 to 170 eggs a year and attain a bodyweight of 1.5 To 2kgs in 2 to 2.5 months.
Kuroiler has two strains called Kuroiler NFG and Kuroiler FFG. Kuroiler FFG is primarily developed for meat production and Kuroiler NFG is developed for Egg production.
Poultry Farm Business Plan
Once you decide the type of poultry farming to start with, make sure that there is enough demand in the market for the same.
Plan your marketing plans in advance. After this market survey, you should able to decide the number of birds to raise on your first run.
The next step is to finalize your investment. Most of the banks provide loans up to 75% of your investment if you meet state guidelines.
Calculate the total investment by considering factors like the number of birds to raise on the first run, construction of the farm, chicks purchase, feed purchase, medication for birds, fencing, labor salary, other equipment, etc.
Before you start, it would be a better idea to visit some nearby poultry farms and join poultry farming courses to upgrade your knowledge.
It is a good idea to start raising on a small scale and once you get enough knowledge go for large scale farming.
Hire a good poultry farm contractor who has enough experience in the same field.
You can also tie-up with brands like Suguna, they will help you in setting up the plant, with the condition of supplying your products only to them.
Choosing a Location for Poultry Farm
Choosing a proper location is very important. Try to avoid residential areas. Each state has their own guidelines while finalizing the poultry farm locations.
Make sure that it has good connectivity to reach your products into the market.
Licenses and Certificates Required
These are the licenses and certificates required to start a poultry farm in India
- Business Registration ( Sole proprietorship/LLC/LLP/OPC)
- MSME Registration
- Experience or Training certificate in poultry Farming
- Business Insurance
- GST Registration
- Permit for poultry Business
- NOC from Grampanchayat/municipality
- A permit from Electrical and Groundwater department
Business Loan for Poultry Farm
Before applying a loan for your poultry farm business, you need to visit your agriculture development office to know the available subsidy schemes and procedures to avail of the subsidy in your state.
These subsidy schemes differ from one state to another. For example some states like Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Punjab, etc. Provide a 100% subsidy on loan interest.
Each state has its own guidelines to be eligible for the subsidy.
Some of the guidelines like there should be a minimum 500-meter distance between two poultry farms, the farm should maintain at least 100-meter distance from a public water resource, minimum 10-meter distance from the main road, etc.
You can get a loan up to 75% of your investment on a mortgage of land security.
The Documents required to apply a loan are, experience certificate or training certificate in poultry farming with other usual documents.
Some of the banks which provide poultry farming loan are State bank of India, Punjab National Bank, HDFC bank, etc.
Marketing Your Business
Choose a business name and deliver products with good quality to have set a brand name in the market.
Contact good distributors who have a good network in your region. If possible try to avoid middle man in every stage.
Connect with Restaurants and Hotels in your region. Offer them better deals than your competitor. You will get regular business by supplying eggs and meats to them.
If you are running a large scale farm, hire someone for marketing. This will definitely increase direct sales.
Be active on social media. Keep updating your products and quality. This will slowly help you in creating brand value.
I hope this guide to Poultry Farm Business will help you get started. If you have any additional suggestions, feel free to mention them in the comments section below.